Thursday, March 11, 2010

COMPUTER GLOSSARY ( ISTILAH DALAM KOMPUTER )

COMPUTER GLOSSARY (ISTILAH DALAM KOMPUTER)
  • 32-bit/16-bit: This denotes the number of "pieces" (or bits) of information required by an operating system to run a certain application. It also deals with the construction of the computer's CPU (Central Processing Unit) or brain. The Pentium CPU easily runs 32-bit applications because the wires that hold all the pieces together (known as busses) are big
    enough to flow through 32 bits at a time. 486s, 386s, and below aren't big enough. They work with 16 bits at a time. Windows95 is a 32-bit application. Yes, it will run on a 486, but very slowly while using a great deal of memory and virtual memory (hard drive space) to do it.

    A
  • ANSI: It stands for American National Standards Institute. This is the place that sets standards for data communications, like the Internet.
  • Analog: Not digital. This is data in the form of a continuous flow. A record or a tape is analog. Digital, on the other hand, is in pieces or samples. More to come on that.
  • AppleShare: This is Apple Computer's network system. It allows many different end users (people on computers) to attach to one central location and get files. (Sound familiar?)
  • Application: This is a program. It does things when called upon. A shortened version gave Java its name: applet.
  • Archie: Search tool used to find resources stored on Internet-based FTP servers.
  • ASCII: It stands for American Standard Code Information Exchange. This is text. It's all those things you
    see on your keyboard. However, it is standardized text so data transfer is allowed between systems. It works by representing letters and characters through a seven-digit code of ones and zeros. An example would be that "Joe" might look like this to the computer:

  • Asynchronous: Transferring data with the help of start and stop bits that indicate the beginning and end of each character being sent.
  • ASP: Active Server Pages. An invention from Microsoft that runs on their server software.

  • AVI: Stands for Audio/Video Interleaved. Microsoft's format for encoding video &
    audio for digital transmission.

    B


  • Backbone: Well, all of these computers have to come together somewhere. There are many "backbones" on the Internet. Think of the backbone as the next larger grouping of computers you connect with to get included in the Web. You're at the end of a rib coming off of the backbone -- get the picture? The main backbone of the Internet here in the U.S. is the NSFNet. It stands for National Science Foundation Net.

  • Bandwidth: The carrying capacity of a wire attached from one computer to another. It is usually measured in the amount of bits carried. You know that 28.8 modem you have? It will allow a bandwidth of 28,800 bits per second.
  • Baud: This is a measurement of the amount of data that can be transferred in one second. Example: A 14.4 baud modem can transfer 14,400 bits of information in one second.
  • BBS: Stands for Bulletin Board Service.
  • BIOS: Stands for Basic Input/Output System. This is the little set of programs that lets all the different parts of the computer talk to each other.
  • Binary: This is a basic system of numbering using ones and zeros.
  • Bit/s: "Bit" is a grouping of the words "binary" and "digits." Think of a bit as a number, a 1 or a 0 to be exact. A grouping of bits helps to make up ASCII code. Data
    transfer is often in terms of the number of these "bits" that can be moved in a second.
  • BMP (pronounced "bimp"): It's a bitmap, an image made up of little dots.
  • Buffer: The buffer is a section of the computer
    where data is stored before being used. This buffering allows time for an application to fix differences in bit rates among other things. It creates a space of time for compensation.
  • Browser: User's software program for viewing & browsing information on the Internet.
  • Burst: Most people know this from "pipeline burst
    cache." Burst means to send data in a large package all at one time rather than small bits over a longer time.
  • Bus: There are wires between all the parts of your computer. There is a wire from the memory to the brain, and from the brain to the printer, etc., etc. Those wires are called busses. They differ from one another by the amount of data they will transfer at one time.
  • Byte: A unit of space. It is also used to
    represent a series of seven or eight ASCII code digits representing a character.

    C

  • C: A programming language developed at AT&T.
  • Cache: This is a memory section that holds data
    while the CPU (central processing unit) or brain, is working on it. Go to your Netscape directory -- you'll see a cache full of files marked ".moz". Those are "mozilla" files. That's what Netscape calls pages after they've been displayed and saved.

  • CD-ROM: Compact Disc - Read Only Memory. It's a storage place that disallows recording or manipulating of its data.
  • CGA: Stands for Color Graphics Adapter. It's a piece of hardware that plays with colors.
  • Client: A computer attached to an Internet server.
  • COBOL: Stands for Common Business Oriented Language.
  • COM: Stands for Component Object Module.
  • Compiler: This is an application that converts a programming language into a machine language program.
  • CPU: Stands for Central Processing Unit. This is the brain of your computer. It is made up of two parts: The Arithmetic Logic Unit (this does all the processing) and the Control Unit (this makes sure every part of the computer is working together to present the information).
  • CSS: Stands for Cascading Style Sheets. See
  • Cyberspace: This is a term that gives us a way to
    sort of "see" what we are surfing while on the Net. It's a
    generic term for the entire Internet, not just the World Wide
    Web.

    D

  • Data: Anything that is recorded or used for
    processing. The stuff that transfers between computers needed a name -- data seemed good.
  • Database: Anything that accepts data is a database. A pile of newspapers is a database. A computer database has the ability to manipulate that data. It is possible to attach applications to that database to search the contents.
  • Data Rate: Speed that information moves from one item to another. This is usually in the form of bits.
  • DDS: Stands for Direct Digital Signal.
  • Dedicated Line: This is a phone line meant
    specifically for one thing, like being attached to a computer.
  • Demodulation: This is the process of converting
    analog information (like over phone lines) into digital
    information (like in a computer). See "Modem" for more.
  • DHTML: Stands for Dynamic HTML. See here.
  • Dial-Up Line: This is a telephone line that is
    connected to a server. When it is called, tones are exchanged
    between the server and the devise calling in order to attach.

  • Digital: Your CD player is digital. It is a series of small samples of data playing together very quickly (30,000 times a second). Digital recording of information means representing the bits of data through ones and zeros. Playing the bits back to again create what was recorded is called digital processing.

  • DNS: This stands for Domain Name System. The Internet runs by assigning different sites "Names." They are actually 4-part strains of numbers associated with names, but names nonetheless. Getting a DNS error means that the address you are attempting to reach is not recognized by the Internet community.
  • Domain: This is a higher level section of the
    Internet, usually given its own DNS. The domain is the section of an address before the directory slashes start. "htmlgoodies.com" is my domain. Click here if you want one of your own!
  • DOS: Stands for Disc Operating System. It is a generic term for the many programs that accept commands to trip applications to run. The most popular is MS-DOS (MS stands for Microsoft).
  • DPI: Stands for Dots Per Inch.
  • Dumb Terminal: This a video screen that is seeing
    manipulation in another computer. Example: If you log in to AOL, your computer is not doing the work -- AOL's computer is. You are just being offered a window into that world. That window is your screen. It's a terminal, but it's just watching -- thus a dumb terminal.

    E

  • EBCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. It is also called the Extended ASCII Code, as it adds an eighth digit to the normal seven-digit code.
  • E-Mail: Stands for Electronic Mail. E-mail is actually a method of transferring files among computers, rather than the file itself, but that's what the name has come to mean.
  • Encryption: This is any one of many methods to
    transfer a file into a hard-to-crack code. It is often done by scrambling or by letter-to-letter replacement.
  • Engine (as in "Search Engine"): This is the working part of a database or application.
  • Ethernet This is a method of file transfer that
    uses dedicated cables rather than dial up phone lines. Ethernets
    are usually set up attaching end users to a central system like
    an Intranet. It was invented by Xerox believe it or not.

    F

  • FAT Stands for File Allocation Table. Basically
    this is a table of contents in a directory that tells the
    computer what al is in there. Look at your Netscape cache,
    you'll see a FAT. It'll be the first file.
  • FAQ
    Stands for Frequently Asked Questions. An FAQ is a file or
    document where a moderator or administrator will post commonly asked questions and their answers.

  • Fiber-Optic This is a new style of cable being
    used for very high speed data transmission. It works by pushing
    (modulating) a light wave across cable. The data is carried
    along with the light.

  • File Sharing This is the most important feature of
    the Internet. This is a method of allowing one server to give
    the same file to many different end users.

  • FORTRAN Stands for FORmula TRANslation.

  • Freeware This a shortened version of Free
    Software. Programmers offer their work without wanting pay in
    return.

  • FTP Stands for File Transfer Protocol.
    G

  • Gateway As in Common Gateway Interface (CGI). It
    is a piece of software that allows two items to communicate with
    each other. They are used to make connections between computers
    and systems inside that computer.

  • GIF Pronounced "jif." Stands for Graphical
    Interchange Format. It is an image format created by Compuserve.

  • Gigabyte (GB) It's about a billion bytes.
    Actually it's 2 to the 30th power or 1,073,741,824.

  • GIGO It's an acronym that stands for Garbage In,
    Garbage Out.
  • Gopher One of the first commonly used interfaces for
    the Internet with a format structure and resource for providing
    information. It was created at the University of Minnesota who's
    mascot is the gopher.

  • GUI Pronounced "gooey". It stands for Graphical
    User Interface. It's the graphical representations you see on
    the screen.




    H


  • Hardware These are the physical items including
    your computer and floppy discs.

  • Helper Application This is an application your
    browser uses to manipulate a downloaded program.

  • Hotlist List of URLs saved within the Mosaic Web
    browser. (Bookmark in Netscape.)

  • HTML Stands for HyperText Markup Language. Common
    language used to write documents on World Wide Web.

  • HTTP Stands for HyperText Transport Protocol. Common
    protocol used to communicate between World Wide Web Servers.

  • Hypertext This is a mark-up language that allows
    for non-linear transfers of data. The method allows your
    computer to provide the computational power rather than attaching
    to a
    mainframe and waiting for it to do the work for you.


    I

  • IBM Stands for International Business Machines

  • Icon A small video display that acts as an
    activation link when clicked on.

  • Interface This is any type of point where two
    different things come together. Most often, the term is used to
    describe the programs between you and your computer like Windows,
    OS/2 and others. What you see on the screen is the interface
    between you and what your computer is doing.

  • IS Stands for Information System.

  • ISO Stands for the International Standards
    Organization. Someone has to say what is the standard for
    transferring data. These people are it. You'll find them in
    Paris.

  • ISDN Stands for Integrated Services Digital
    Network.


    J

  • Java Java is an Object Oriented Program developed
    by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems. Java is delivered over the
    Internet in the form of little applications or "applets" that do
    tricks when they download and are read by the browser.

  • Java Script This is a language very close to Java
    that allows for more interaction with the viewer. It is much
    more forgiving than Java as doesn't require it's own window in
    which to work.

  • JPEG Pronounced "J-Peg." Stands for Joint
    Photographic Experts Group. It's an image format that allows for
    compression when stored.

  • Jughead Search browser like "Archie".


    K

  • Kilobyte (KB) This is about a thousand bytes of
    space. In reality, it's two to the 10th power or 1,024 bytes.

  • Kbit/s Stands for thousands of bits per second.





    L

  • LAN Stands for Local Access Network. And Intranet
    would be one of these. It's a smaller network covering a set
    area.

  • Live Script This is the former name of Java
    Script. There are few updates between the two.

  • Login To attach to a computer. It has also come
    to represent your User ID command.

  • Login Script This is the small text file that is
    run by the server gateway to make the attachment between it and
    your computer.


    M

  • Mainframe Mostly a mainframe is only a mainframe
    when compared to a desktop computer. It's bigger and much more
    powerful.
    Sometimes it's called a server or CPU.

  • Megabyte (MB) About a million bytes of space.
    Actually it's 2 raised to the 20th power or 1,048,576 bytes of
    space.

  • MIDI Stands for Music Instrument Digital
    Interface. It allows a computer to store and replay a musical
    instrument's output.

  • Modem This is a word created out of the beginning
    letters of two other words: MOdulation and DEModulation. The
    words mean the changing of data from digital (computer language)
    to analog (phone line language) and then back again. It
    represents the purpose of your computer's modem.

  • Mosaic The first Web browser to have a consistent
    interface for the Macintosh, Windows, and Unix environments. It
    was created at the National Center for Supercomputing
    Applications (NCSA). The success of this browser is really
    responsible for the expansion of the Web.

  • MPEG Stands for Motion Picture Experts Group. A
    format to make, view, and transfer both digital audio and digital
    video files.

  • Multiplexer This is a piece of hardware that
    allows one item to take the place of several. An example would
    be using a multiplexer to allow 10 computers to attach where only
    one could before.


    N

  • NACS Stands for Netware Asynchronous Communication
    Services.

  • Network This a system that sends and receives
    data.

  • Network Adapter This is the hardware that allows
    the computers that are part of a network to communicate with each
    other.


    O

  • Object Something that contains both the data and
    the application that operates on that data.

  • OOP Stands for Object Oriented Program. A larger
    program made up of smaller objects.

  • Operating System Often written just as OS. This
    is the software that manages the computer system. It controls
    all functions and direction. Examples include Windows and
    Windows 95.


    P

  • PPP Stands for Point To Point Protocol. It's a
    software application that allows an attachment to a server.

  • PICT Pronounced "Pick,t." It is another image
    format.

  • Plug-In This is a program that your browser uses
    to manipulate a downloaded file. It differs from a Helper
    Application in that the plug-in works inside the browser window.

  • Port This is the connecting component or hardware
    that allows two computers to attach to one another.

  • Protocol This is a series of set rules that allow
    items to transfer.


    Q

  • Query This is to make a computer request of a
    database.


    R


  • RAM Stands for Random Access Memory. It's the
    memory of the computer.

  • RealAudio This is a method of playing sounds
    invented by Rob Glasser that creates a buffer between the
    supplying server and your computer. The file is played without
    downloading it completely.

  • Real Time This is method of processing data the
    moment it is received. Batch mode is a term used for a mainframe
    computer dealing with data when it has the time.

  • ROM Stands for Read-Only Memory. This is memory and information that cannot be changed.


    S

  • Serial This is a consecutive occurrence of two
    items in the
    same channel.

  • Server This is a mainframe computer that serves
    the other computers attached to it.

  • Shareware This is an application that a programmer
    makes available to users for a set amount of time and then asks
    for a donation.
    In return for the donation, a registration number is often
    returned that can be used to "turn on" the features of the
    program.

  • Shell This is a program that sets parameters and
    acts as a series of boundaries in which an application can run.


  • SLIP Stands for Serial Line Interface Protocol.
    This is another application that allows for a connection to another
    computer.

  • SMTP Stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

  • Software This is a program, the actual code the
    computer reads. All other stuff is hardware. A floppy disc is
    hardware.

  • Spam This is to transmit unwanted messages, usually
    over email, to a great many people.

  • SVGA Stands for Super Video Graphics Adapter.
    It's a high level monitor.


    T

  • TCP/IP Stands for Transmission Control
    Protocol/Internet Protocol. This is a large grouping of programs
    and standards that govern how information moves round the
    Internet. The
    protocols were established around 1970-1980 to allow computers to
    attach to one another.

  • Telnet One of the TCP/IP Protocols. It allows a
    connection to another computer over dedicated phone lines.

  • Terabyte (TB) It's about a trillion bytes.
    Actually it's 2 to the 40th power or 1,009,511,627,776 bytes.

  • Terminal This is what you look at when you're on
    the Internet. It's your computer screen.


  • Terminal Emulation This is an application that
    allows your terminal to act as a dumb terminal.

  • Transparent Something that occurs without being
    known to the user.

  • TWAIN Stands for Technology Without An Interesting
    Name. I like this, I found it on another site.


    U

  • UNIX This is an operating system developed by
    AT&T. It's big push it that it allows one server to service many
    different end users at one time.


  • URL Stands for Universal Resource Locator. It's a
    fancy way of saying Internet Address.


  • User Someone attached to a server or host.


    V

  • VDD Stands for Virtual Device Driver.

  • Veronica Stands for Very Easy Rodent Oriented
    Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives. A database of menu names
    from a large number of Gopher servers. A quick and easy way to
    search Gopher resources for information by keyword.

  • VGA Stands for Video Graphics Adapter. This is a
    lower level color monitor.

  • VIRUS Stands for Very Important Resource Under
    Siege (or...Vicious Internal Rabbit/Rodent Uprooting Stuff).
    Actually, it's a small program written specifically to cause
    problems in your computer. I caught a computer virus that
    disallowed me to save any of my text files as anything but
    temporary files. That meant each time I turned off the computer,
    the files were lost.

  • VMS Stands for Video Memory System

  • VRML Stands for Virtual Reality Modeling Language.
    It's a form of application that gives a 3-D effect to pictures
    sometimes allowing you to "move" through them.



    W

  • WWW Short for World Wide Web.

  • WAIS Stands for Wide Area Information Servers.
    Searches large indexes of information on the Internet.

  • WAN Stands for Wide Area Network, like the
    Internet.

  • WAV Stands for WAVeform sound format. Microsoft's
    format for encoding sound files.

  • Workgroup Persons sharing files and data between
    themselves.

  • Workstation The computer attached to the Internet.

  • WPG Stands for Word Perfect Graphics.


    XYZ

  • ZIP Stands for Zone Information Protocol. This is
    an application that allows for the compression of application
    files.



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